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The oldest subway

The oldest of the existing underground world - it is the underground in London, where the subway was built in 1863, while in other countries on the subway is just thought. Thanks to all London went down in history as the city where the underground appeared one of the first. But, like everything that has been opened for the first time, Metropolitan was initially not very convenient. Of course, the London Underground continues to expand and to this day, but no good for the old part of town is not done. Is that the lines were closed. But why did the old metro line gradually closed? First, the subway is very close to the city - most of the tunnels under the city that had been established almost 150 years ago, little more than the cars themselves, which they attend. Second, the cars of the old type, which, incidentally, is almost never used, new cars do not give a possibility to become wider, so the London Underground is rather narrow, not only because of the tunnels, but also because the cars the subway is very small. However, this did not affect passenger traffic, which is among the world falls into the top ten. As you can see - this means that age is no obstacle for the subway. In general, all the underground in London, has a solid length of 408 kilometers. Let the old lines are closed, but if you add them to the present, add no more than 50 kilometers. As for the stations, the vast majority of them are under the ground - a very small amount is found on the surface of the earth. As a result, almost the whole of London a break various tunnels of old and new types, so the underground system is very high. Even native Londoners, who often travel by subway, sometimes confused about the fact on which the station is better to get off to exit from a particular point in the city. But this is only a minor disadvantages. In fact, the underground city gives him a lot of opportunities, or municipality would not have to spend numerous funds, which are often not even being spent to support the car in good condition, and the pumping of water.

Problems with water

Since the subway in the city is very large and located approximately at the level of the River Thames, the tunnels often comes a certain amount of water, which varies by season and time of year. The greatest amount of water that fell into the tunnels, occasionally flooded, some of them in half. But as for the methods of struggle with this - it is supposed to dig a lot of mines that go even further underground, which will fill these mines with water, after which it will be easy to pump. Means of flood control is very convenient - the water level, which rose by 50 meters over the past few decades, will be lowered to 20 meters to the underground was on dry land.

Ground Station

All the problems that have plagued the subway in London, pale into insignificance when you see its splendor - it has a metro station and the beauty of the grandeur of the earliest structures, where many tunnels were created very differently than at present, but because they have to be much more robust and accurate because when they are laying used manual labor. However, there are ground stations - some way come to the surface right in town, so you can see the city from the windows of the train.

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